Medical Cannabis



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The report authors advised quite that medical hashish customers occupied a “continuum” between medical and nonmedical use. Organizations that oppose the legalization of medical hashish include the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Psychiatric Association. However, the AAP additionally helps rescheduling for the purpose of facilitating research. In the United States, medical health insurance corporations could not pay for a medical marijuana prescription as the Food and Drug Administration should approve any substance for medicinal purposes. Before this can happen, the FDA should first allow the research of the medical benefits and drawbacks of the substance, which it has not carried out because it was positioned on Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act in 1970.

The discrepancies between studies may reflect larger long-term results among heavier users relative to occasional users, and higher period of effect amongst those with heavy use as adolescents compared to later in life. A second systematic evaluation targeted on neuroimaging studies found little evidence supporting an effect of hashish use on mind construction and performance. A 2003 meta-analysis concluded that any long-term cognitive results were comparatively modest in magnitude and restricted to certain elements of studying and memory. Cannabis’ efficacy just isn’t clear in treating neurological issues, together with a quantity of sclerosis and motion issues.

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The National Institute on Drug Abuse defines medical cannabis as “using the entire, unprocessed marijuana plant or its fundamental extracts to deal with signs of sickness and different situations”. Medical cannabis can be administered by way of various methods, together with capsules, lozenges, tinctures, dermal patches, oral or dermal sprays, hashish edibles, and vaporizing or smoking dried buds. Synthetic cannabinoids are available for prescription use in some countries, similar to dronabinol and nabilone.

CB1 receptors are found in very high levels within the mind and are regarded as liable for psychoactive effects. CB2 receptors are found peripherally all through the physique and are thought to modulate ache 72453893 a beginners guide to vaping and inflammation. The most psychoactive cannabinoid found within the cannabis plant is tetrahydrocannabinol (or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, commonly known as THC).

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The Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE) from Ancient Egypt has a prescription for medical marijuana applied directly for inflammation. An Irish doctor, William Brooke O’Shaughnessy, is credited with introducing cannabis to Western medication. O’Shaughnessy discovered hashish in the 1830s whereas residing abroad in India, the place he conducted quite a few experiments investigating the drug’s medical utility . He returned to England with a provide of cannabis in 1842, after which its use spread via Europe and the United States.
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While the research up to now have shown that cannabinoids may be safe in treating cancer, they don’t show that they help management or remedy the disease. More lately, scientists reported that THC and other cannabinoids similar to CBD gradual growth and/or cause dying in sure kinds of cancer cells rising in lab dishes. Some animal research additionally recommend certain cannabinoids could gradual growth and scale back spread of some forms of cancer. Studies have long proven that people who took marijuana extracts in clinical trials tended to want much less pain medicine. A few research have discovered that inhaled marijuana can be useful remedy of neuropathic ache . Different cultivars and even different crops of marijuana plants can have various quantities of those and other active compounds.

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But the usage of marijuana to deal with some medical conditions is authorized beneath state laws in many states. Adjuvant use was secure and effective in 3 trials for cancer ache, nevertheless the drug failed to fulfill its major endpoint for this function in its first Phase III trial.

Medical hashish, or medical marijuana , is hashish and cannabinoids which are prescribed by physicians for their patients. The use of hashish as medication has not been rigorously examined because of manufacturing and governmental restrictions, resulting in restricted medical analysis to define the safety and efficacy of using cannabis to treat illnesses. Preliminary evidence means that cannabis can reduce nausea and vomiting throughout chemotherapy, enhance appetite in individuals with HIV/AIDS, and reduce persistent ache and muscle spasms. Overall analysis into the health results of medical hashish has been of low quality and it is not clear whether or not it’s a useful remedy for any situation, or whether harms outweight any benefit. There isn’t any consistent proof that it helps with chronic pain and muscle spasms. Low high quality evidence suggests its use for reducing nausea during chemotherapy, bettering urge for food in HIV/AIDS, enhancing sleep, and enhancing tics in Tourette syndrome.

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The fee goes as much as one in six amongst those who start use as adolescents, and one-quarter to one-half of those who use it day by day based on a NIDA review. A 2013 evaluation estimates daily use is associated with a 10-20% fee of dependence.
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The potential for antagonistic results from smoke inhalation makes smoking a much less viable option than oral preparations. Cannabis vaporizers have gained recognition due to a perception among users that fewer dangerous chemicals are ingested when parts are inhaled through aerosol somewhat than smoke. Cannabinoid medicines can be found in pill kind and liquid extracts formulated into an oromucosal spray . There is insufficient knowledge to draw strong conclusions concerning the safety of medical hashish. Typically, opposed results of medical cannabis use aren’t critical; they embody tiredness, dizziness, elevated urge for food, and cardiovascular and psychoactive effects. Other results can include impaired short-term memory; impaired motor coordination; altered judgment; and paranoia or psychosis at excessive doses.

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Less widespread unwanted effects had been “ocular problems, orthostatic hypotension, muscle twitching, pruritus, vagueness, hallucinations, lightheadedness and dry mouth”. A Cannabis plant contains more than four hundred completely different chemical compounds, of which about 70 are cannabinoids. In comparison, typical government-approved medicines contain only one or two chemical compounds. The number of lively chemical substances in cannabis is one cause why remedy with cannabis is tough to classify and research.

Eventually, both routes of metabolism result in the metabolism of psychoactive THC to inactive 11-COOH-THC. There is severe suspicion among cardiologists, spurring research however falling in need of definitive proof, that hashish use has the potential to contribute to heart problems. Cannabis is believed to be an aggravating factor in uncommon circumstances of arteritis, a severe condition that in some instances results in amputation. Because 97% of case-reports additionally smoked tobacco, a formal association with cannabis couldn’t be made. If arteritis seems to be a definite clinical entity, it could be the consequence of vasoconstrictor exercise noticed from delta-8-THC and delta-9-THC.

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The Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE) from Ancient Egypt describes medical cannabis. The historic Egyptians used hemp in suppositories for relieving the ache of hemorrhoids. A 2011 systematic evaluate evaluated published research of the acute and long-term cognitive effects of hashish. THC intoxication is properly established to impair cognitive functioning on an acute foundation, together with effects on the power to plan, arrange, clear up problems, make choices, and control impulses. The extent of this impression could also be larger in novice users, and paradoxically, these habituated to high-level ingestion could have lowered cognition during withdrawal. Studies of long-term effects on cognition have supplied conflicting results, with some research discovering no distinction between long-term abstainers and never-users and others discovering long-term deficits.
A systematic evaluation in 2014 by the American Academy of Neurology found that nabiximols was ‘probably efficient’ for spasticity, pain, and urinary dysfunction, but wasn’t supported for tremor. In February 2007, GW and Otsuka Pharmaceutical announced an exclusive settlement for Otsuka to develop and market the drug within the United States. The first massive scale US Phase IIb trial, Spray Trial, for folks with most cancers reported constructive ends in March 2010. GW and Otsuka have now commenced the Phase III improvement of nabiximols in cancer ache.

It’s out there in Canada and components of Europe to treat ache linked to most cancers, as nicely as muscle spasms and pain from multiple sclerosis . It’s not permitted in the US at this time, however it’s being examined in medical trials to see if it could assist a quantity of circumstances. The term medical marijuana refers to utilizing the whole unprocessed marijuana plant or its basic extracts to deal with a disease or symptom. Medical cannabis analysis consists of any medical analysis on utilizing hashish as a remedy for any medical situation. For causes including elevated popular assist of cannabis use, a pattern of hashish legalization, and the notion of medical usefulness, more scientists are doing medical hashish research. Medical cannabis is unusually broad as a treatment for many circumstances, each of which has its personal state of analysis. Similarly, numerous nations conduct and reply to medical cannabis analysis in numerous ways.
The drug use should be “implicated” within the emergency division visit, however doesn’t need to be the direct cause of the go to. Tetrahydrocannabinol , the principal psychoactive constituent of the hashish plant, has low toxicity while the LD50 (dose of THC needed to kill 50% of tested rodents) is high. E Liquid Testing Labs In The Uk 1 may include nervousness and panic, impaired attention, and reminiscence , an elevated threat of psychotic signs, and possibly increased danger of accidents if an individual drives a motorcar whereas intoxicated. Psychotic episodes are well-documented and typically resolve within minutes or hours. A 2016 Cochrane evaluation stated that cannabinoids were “probably effective” in treating chemotherapy-induced nausea in youngsters, but with a high side-effect profile .

Nevertheless, as of June 2016 this drug had still not truly been offered in pharmacies there. In June 2010, the Medicines and Healthcare merchandise Regulatory Agency of the United Kingdom licensed nabiximols as a prescription-only medication for the treatment of spasticity as a outcome of multiple sclerosis. This regulatory authorization represents the world’s first full regulatory approval for the medicine. Many people with MS can’t receive nabiximols because of local National Health Service resistance to its funding; however, in August 2014, the NHS in Wales agreed to fund Sativex for folks with a number of sclerosis.
Other cannabinoids embrace delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol , cannabinol , cannabicyclol , cannabichromene and cannabigerol ; they have less psychotropic effects than THC, but may play a job within the overall effect of cannabis. Cannabis often causes no tolerance or withdrawal signs besides in heavy customers. In a survey of heavy customers 42.4% experienced withdrawal signs once they tried to quit marijuana corresponding to craving, irritability, boredom, anxiety and sleep disturbances.

Dronabinol (Marinol®)is a gelatin capsule containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol that’s permitted by the US Food and Drug Administration to deal with nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy as well as weight loss and poor urge for food in sufferers with AIDS. There are 2 chemically pure medication based on marijuana compounds which were approved in the US for medical use. Because marijuana plants come in different strains with different ranges of lively compounds, it can make each user’s experience very exhausting to predict. The effects can also differ based on how deeply and for the way lengthy the consumer inhales. Smoked marijuana delivers THC and other cannabinoids to the body, however it additionally delivers dangerous substances to customers and those shut by, together with lots of the same substances found in tobacco smoke. There have been some early scientific trials of cannabinoids in treating most cancers in people and more research are planned.
Evidence also means that oral cannabis extract is effective for decreasing patient-centered measures of spasticity. A trial of hashish is deemed to be an inexpensive possibility if different therapies have not been efficient.[by whom?
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The highest threat of cannabis dependence is found in these with a history of poor educational achievement, deviant conduct in childhood and adolescence, rebelliousness, poor parental relationships, or a parental history of drug and alcohol problems. Cannabis smoke accommodates 1000’s of natural and inorganic chemical compounds. This tar is chemically just like that present in tobacco smoke, and over fifty known carcinogens have been recognized in cannabis smoke, together with nitrosamines, reactive aldehydes, and polycyclic hydrocarbons, including benzpyrene. Light and moderate use of hashish just isn’t believed to increase danger of lung or upper airway most cancers. In general there are far decrease risks of pulmonary issues for regular hashish people who smoke in comparison with those of tobacco.
Countries that allow the medical use of whole-plant cannabis include Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Portugal, and Uruguay. In the United States, 36 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis for medical purposes, beginning with the passage of California’s Proposition 215 in 1996. Although cannabis stays prohibited for any use at the federal level, the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment was enacted in December 2014, limiting the ability of federal law to be enforced in states the place medical cannabis has been legalized. The American Cancer Society helps the necessity for more scientific analysis on cannabinoids for most cancers sufferers, and acknowledges the need for better and simpler therapies that may overcome the often debilitating unwanted facet effects of most cancers and its remedy. The Society also believes that the classification of marijuana as a Schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Administration imposes quite a few situations on researchers and deters scientific study of cannabinoids. Federal officials should study options consistent with federal regulation for enabling extra scientific examine on marijuana. It’s a mouth spray made up of a whole-plant extract with THC and cannabidiol in an almost one to one combine.

A variety of small studies of smoked marijuana found that it can be useful in treating nausea and vomiting from most cancers chemotherapy. At this time, the US Drug Enforcement Administration lists marijuana and its cannabinoids as Schedule I controlled substances. This means that they cannot legally be prescribed, possessed, or sold underneath federal law. Whole or crude marijuana just isn’t accredited by the US Food and Drug Administration for any medical use.
A List Of Best Dessert E Liquids To Try In 2017 of cannabis normally used for medicinal purposes isn’t believed to cause any everlasting cognitive impairment in adults, although long-term remedy in adolescents should be weighed carefully as they are more vulnerable to those impairments. Withdrawal signs are rarely a problem with managed medical administration of cannabinoids. The ability to drive autos or to function equipment may be impaired till a tolerance is developed. Although supporters of medical hashish say that it’s protected, further analysis is required to assess the long-term safety of its use.
In 1964, Albert Lockhart and Manley West began studying the health effects of conventional cannabis use in Jamaican communities. They developed, and in 1987 gained permission to market, the pharmaceutical “Canasol”, one of many first hashish extracts. In the United States, the medical use of hashish further declined with the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, which imposed new regulations and charges on physicians prescribing cannabis. Pharmacopeia in 1941, and officially banned for any use with the passage of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Cannabis, called má 麻 (meaning “hemp; hashish; numbness”) or dàmá 大麻 (with “massive; nice”) in Chinese, was used in Taiwan for fiber beginning about 10,000 years in the past.

He recommended the substance for a lot of illnesses, together with constipation, gout, rheumatism, and absent-mindedness. Cannabis is one of the 50 “elementary” herbs in conventional Chinese medication. Ingestion of edible cannabis products result in a slower onset of effect than the inhalation of it as a end result of the THC travels to the liver first via the blood before it travels to the remainder of the physique. Inhaled hashish can lead to THC going on to the mind, where it then travels from the mind back to the liver in recirculation for metabolism.
This implies that marijuana can have completely different effects primarily based on the strain used. For example, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol seems to trigger the “excessive” reported by marijuana users, and likewise can help relieve pain and nausea, cut back inflammation, and may act as an antioxidant. Cannabidiol might help deal with seizures, can reduce anxiousness and paranoia, and can counteract the “high” brought on by THC. The two greatest studied components are the chemical compounds delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol , and cannabidiol . The commonest antagonistic results in Phase III trials were dizziness (25%), drowsiness (8%) and disorientation (4%); 12% of topics stopped taking the drug due to the side effects. No investigations relating to the potential for dependence are available, but such a possible is unlikely considering the pharmacological properties of the two elements. In 2013, France legalized the utilization of cannabinoids in medication, Sativex is the first one to be sold under prescription.
Cannabis started to attract renewed curiosity as drugs in the Nineteen Seventies and Nineteen Eighties, particularly due to its use by most cancers and AIDS patients who reported aid from the effects of chemotherapy and losing syndrome. In 1996, California became the primary U.S. state to legalize medical cannabis in defiance of federal legislation. In 2001, Canada grew to become the primary nation to adopt a system regulating the medical use of cannabis.
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Other critical cardiovascular occasions together with myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and cardiomyopathy have been reported to be temporally related to cannabis use. Research in these events is sophisticated because cannabis is commonly used in conjunction with tobacco, and medicines such as alcohol and cocaine. Effects of persistent use may embody bronchitis, a hashish dependence syndrome, and refined impairments of attention and reminiscence.
In 1845 French doctor Jacques-Joseph Moreau published a e-book about the use of cannabis in psychiatry. Delta-9-THC is metabolized in the liver and turns into 11-OH-THC.11-OH-THC is the first metabolic product in this pathway. The metabolism of THC into 11-OH-THC performs an element in the heightened psychoactive effects of edible hashish. CB1 and CB2 are the first cannabinoid receptors responsible for a quantity of of the results of cannabinoids, although other receptors may play a job as nicely.

The Phase III approval examine consisted of a run-in section the place the response of people to the drug was determined. The responders (42% of subjects) showed a big effect within the second, placebo controlled, part of the trial. A 2009 meta-analysis of six research discovered large variations of effectiveness, with a – statistically non-significant – pattern towards a reduction of spasticity.
It was the commonest technique of medical hashish consumption within the US as of 2013. It is troublesome to predict the pharmacological response to hashish as a end result of focus of cannabinoids varies extensively, as there are other ways of preparing it for consumption and a scarcity of manufacturing controls.
The method of acquiring medical hashish varies by region and by laws. In the US, most consumers grow their very own or purchase it from cannabis dispensaries in states the place it is legal. Marijuana vending machines for promoting or allotting hashish are in use in the United States and are deliberate to be used in Canada.
  • In the United States, the medical use of hashish further declined with the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, which imposed new regulations and fees on physicians prescribing cannabis.
  • In February 2007, GW and Otsuka Pharmaceutical introduced an exclusive agreement for Otsuka to develop and market the drug in the United States.
  • The American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network , the Society’s advocacy affiliate, has not taken a place on legalization of marijuana for medical functions because of the need for more scientific research on marijuana’s potential benefits and harms.
  • The National Institute on Drug Abuse defines medical cannabis as “using the whole, unprocessed marijuana plant or its basic extracts to deal with signs of illness and different conditions”.
  • In 1964, Albert Lockhart and Manley West began finding out the well being effects of conventional cannabis use in Jamaican communities.

In 2014, the startup Meadow started providing on-demand delivery of medical marijuana within the San Francisco Bay Area, by way of their cellular app. In the United States, the use of hashish for medical functions is authorized in 36 states, 4 out of 5 permanently inhabited U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia. An additional 12 states have more restrictive laws allowing the usage of low-THC products. Cannabis stays illegal at the federal stage beneath the Controlled Substances Act, which classifies it as a Schedule I drug with a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use. In December 2014, however, the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment was signed into legislation, prohibiting the Justice Department from prosecuting individuals appearing in accordance with state medical cannabis legal guidelines. Smoking has been the technique of administration of cannabis for many users, but it is not appropriate for the use of cannabis as a medication.
Concerns embody memory and cognition problems, threat of habit, schizophrenia in younger people, and the danger of children taking it by accident. The American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network , the Society’s advocacy affiliate, has not taken a place on legalization of marijuana for medical functions due to the necessity for more scientific research on marijuana’s potential advantages and harms. However, ACS CAN opposes the smoking or vaping of marijuana and other cannabinoids in public places as a outcome of the carcinogens in marijuana smoke pose quite a few health hazards to the patient and others within the patient’s presence. Nabiximols has shown promise for serving to individuals with cancer pain that’s unrelieved by sturdy pain medicines, but it hasn’t been discovered to be helpful in every examine carried out. Relying on marijuana alone as treatment while avoiding or delaying typical medical care for cancer may have serious well being consequences.
Combustion products are not present when using a vaporizer, consuming THC in tablet form, or consuming cannabis edibles. There has been a restricted number of studies which have looked on the results of smoking hashish on the respiratory system. Chronic heavy marijuana smoking is associated with coughing, production of sputum, wheezing, coughing, and different signs of continual bronchitis. Regular cannabis use has not been shown to cause significant abnormalities in lung operate. There isn’t any good evidence that medical hashish is effective for treating posttraumatic stress disorder, and its use for this function isn’t recommended. A 2014 evaluation said that the variations in ratio of CBD-to-THC in botanical and pharmaceutical preparations determines the therapeutic vs psychoactive effects (CBD attenuates THC’s psychoactive effects) of cannabis products. Common unwanted aspect effects embody dizziness, feeling drained, vomiting, and hallucinations.

The Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use courting back 1000’s of years in many cultures. Some American medical organizations have requested removing of cannabis from the record of Schedule I controlled substances maintained by the United States federal authorities, adopted by regulatory and scientific evaluate. Our group is made up of docs and oncology licensed nurses with deep information of most cancers care in addition to journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing. Like many other medicine ivg eliquid cookie dough 18mg 10ml, the prescription cannabinoids, dronabinol and nabilone, can cause side effects and complications. Dronabinol has additionally been found to help improve food intake and stop weight reduction in patients with HIV. In studies of cancer sufferers, although, it wasn’t higher than placebo or one other drug . It may be taken by mouth to treat nausea and vomiting brought on by most cancers chemotherapy when different medication have not worked.
Therefore, all bills incurred fulfilling a medical marijuana prescription will presumably be incurred as out-of-pocket. However, the New Mexico Court of Appeals has dominated that workers’ compensation insurance coverage should pay for prescribed marijuana as a half of the state’s Medical Cannabis Program. Almost 70% of medical cannabis is exported from the United Kingdom, based on a 2017 United Nations report, with a lot of the remaining quantity coming from Canada and the Netherlands.

Compared to non-smokers, people who smoked hashish often in adolescence exhibit lowered connectivity in particular mind areas related to memory, studying, alertness, and government operate. One study instructed that sustained heavy, day by day, adolescent onset hashish use over many years is associated with a decline in IQ by age 38, with no results found in those that initiated hashish use later, or in those who ceased use earlier in adulthood. A follow-up review found that IQ deficit could also be a precursor, rather than result, of cannabis use, and that social and environmental factors are a likely influence. According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, there were 455,000 emergency room visits related to hashish use in 2011. These statistics include visits in which the patient was treated for a situation induced by or related to current hashish use.
In the United States, cannabidiol, one of many cannabinoids discovered in the marijuana plant, has been permitted for treating two extreme forms of epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. When hashish is inhaled to alleviate pain, blood levels of cannabinoids rise sooner than when oral products are used, peaking inside three minutes and attaining an analgesic effect in seven minutes. Research into the usage of cannabis for treating continual ache has yielded inconsistent results for neuropathic ache, spasms related to a quantity of sclerosis and pain from rheumatic problems. Evidence is lacking for both efficacy and safety of hashish and cannabinoids in treating sufferers with HIV/AIDS or for anorexia associated with AIDS. As of 2013, present research undergo from the effects of bias, small sample size, and lack of long-term information. Medical hashish is considerably effective in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and could also be a reasonable possibility in those who do not improve following preferential remedy. Long-term cannabis use may trigger nausea and vomiting, a situation known as cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome .
Other nations have extra restrictive legal guidelines that permit solely the usage of isolated cannabinoid medicine corresponding to Sativex or Epidiolex. Countries with the most relaxed insurance policies include Canada, Uruguay, and the Netherlands, the place hashish could be purchased with out want for a prescription. The same limit applies in Switzerland, but no prescription is required to purchase.


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Author Biograhy: Nataly Komova founded Chill Hempire after experiencing the first-hand results of CBD in helping her to relieve her skin condition. Nataly is now determined to spread the word about the benefits of CBD through blogging and taking part in events. In her spare time, Nataly enjoys early morning jogs, fitness, meditation, wine tasting, traveling and spending quality time with her friends. Nataly is also an avid vintage car collector and is currently working on her 1993 W124 Mercedes. Nataly is a contributing writer to many CBD magazines and blogs. She has been featured in prominent media outlets such as Cosmopolitan, Elle, Grazia, Women’s Health, The Guardian and others.

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